The Exorcist Tradition in Islam
This work is specifically aimed at filling a gap in modern research on the Islamic concept of exorcism and the supernatural world related to it, based upon the sources considered authentic by Islamic authorities and augmented by field research. The possession of humans by jinns and their expulsion are thoroughly discussed. A comparative study is made with Christian exorcist tradition and the medical professions point of view. Case studies of leading Muslim exorcists from Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Pakistan and India are included. This work was originally submitted under the title "Exorcism in Islam" as a Ph.D. thesis at the University of Wales, St. David's University College, in September of 1993. It is unimaginable that an academic effort of this magnitude could successfully come to fruition without the help of others. Expressing gratitude to those whom it is due is a highly regarded Islamic custom based upon the statement of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh): "Whoever does not thank people does not thank Allah." Words by Author: First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Mawil Izzi Dien, for his invaluable spiritual and academic advice and for his subtle direction of my efforts throughout the preparation of this thesis. Gratitude is also due to the Dean of the faulty of Theology, Dr. D. P. Davies, who provided both insights into the topic and technical guidance in its compilation. And lastly, I am indebted to sister Amatullah who typed my thesis at a moment's notice.